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IN July, 1621, Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins were 
sent, by the Governor of Plymouth Colony, to explore this 
section of the country, to visit Massasoit, the king of the Wam- 
pannoages, who lived where Bristol, K I., now stands, to as- 
certain the number of the Indians and open trade with them. 
Having passed Midclleboro' (then called Namasket), Winslow 
and Hopkins arrived at Titicui, where they exchanged hospita- 
ble offices with the natives, whom they found fishing. There 
they lodged one night, in the open fields on the banks of the 
stream, which were already cleared and adaj3ted to cultivation. 
The embassadors then proceeded six miles down the river, on 
the south side, to a fording-place near King's bridge. When 
preparing to cross they were opposed by two aged Indians on the 
opposite side, who were the only individuals surviving the pes- 
tilence which, two years before, had nearly depopulated the re- 
gion. These two Indians, on being assured that Winslow, Hop- 
kins and their Indian guides were friendly, received the travel- 
lers without further objection. These were the first English- 
men who set foot in Raynham. Here they ascertained the ebb 
and flow of the tide. Their Indian friends showed them clear 
springs of water, carried them across the river on their backs 
and transported the luggage. In passing along the southern 
border of the town, they discovered many places which had 
been tilled by Indians. The ground near the river was a 
natural meadow, with, soil adapted to the corn cultivated by 
the natives, but the country -was depopulated by the plague 
which had recently prevailed. 

History of Raynham, Mass. 

Taunton, which at first included Raynham and five other 
towns, was settled, in 1638, by emigrants principally from 
Taunton, in England. The lands of Mrs. Elizabeth Pool, one 
of the chief proprietors, were specially laid out by order of the 
Colonial government at Plymouth, in May, 1669. These land's 
had been bought from the Indians ; and, in 1675, the owners 
set forth a declaration of their rights, with the following pre- 
amble : — "Whereas, by the providence of Grod, in the year 
1638, it pleased God to bring the most part of the first pur- 
chasers of Taunton over the great ocean into this wilderness, 
from our dear and native land, and after some small time here, 
we found this place, called by the natives of the land Cohan- 
net, in the Colony of New Plymouth, and of the Court of said 
Colony we obtained grants of tracts of land for a plantation or 
township, as by the record of said Court it may and doth ap- 
pear, and then we also made purchase and bought the tracts 
of land, for our money, of the right proprietors and owners, the 
Indian sachems or princes of this part of the country, as by 
deed under their hands it may appear ; and in honor and love 
to our dear native land, we called this place Taunton ; and 
owning it a great mercy to God to bring us to this place, and 
setting us on lands of our own, bought with our own money, 
in peace in the midst of the heathen, for a possession for our- 
selves and for our posterity after us." 

Settlements were made in Raynham, in 1652, by James Leon- 
ard, Henry Leonard and Ralph Russel, who came from Wales 
and first settled in Braintree. October 21st, 1652, the follow- 
ing entry appears in the records of Taunton : — "It was agreed 
and granted, by the town, to the said James and Henry Leon- 
ard and Ralph Russel, free consent to come hither and join 
with certain of our inhabitants to set up a bloomary work on 
the Two-mile River." Then no stranger could become an in- 
habitant without permission. " It was agreed and granted, by 
a free vote of the town, that such particular inhabitants as shall 
concur with said persons, in their design, shall have free liberty 
from the town to do so, to build and set up this work, and that 
they shall have the woods on the other side of the Two-mile 

First Iron" Works in America. 5 

river, wheresoever it is common on that side of the river, to 
cut for their cord-wood to make coals ; and also to dig and take 
mine or ore at Two-mile meadows, or in any of the commons 
appertaining to the town where it is not proprietary." 

In accordance with this vote and the permission granted, the 
above-mentioned individuals erected works for the extraction 
of iron from the native ore, being the first iron manufactory 
established on the continent. These works continued in the 
possession of the Leonards and their descendants a hundred 
years ; were enlarged by additional furnaces, and subsequently 
converted into an anchor forge. 

The original projectors, Henry and James Leonard, attracted 
by more abundant ores in New Jersey, removed there and 
established the first foundry in that province. 

During the Indian war of 1675, which desolated many of the 
towns of Plymouth and Massachusetts Colonies, the inhabitants 
of Taunton were exempt from attack. Philip, the chief insti- 
gator of that war, had a summer hunting-seat near the Fowling 
pond. The Leonards had supplied him with beef, repaired his 
muskets and furnished him with such simple tools as the In- 
dians could use. These acts of friendship were remembered, 
and when other towns suffered from savage incursions, Rayn- 
ham and Taunton escaped. Philip's influence and friendship 
protected them. The people, however, were on their guard, 
and constructed fortified houses capable of resisting an Indian 
seige. A house belonging to Samuel Leonard, which stood a 
few rods east of the forge, was surrounded by palisades and 
provisioned. A fort, also, was built on the farm now owned 
by Samuel Hathaway, on Pleasant street. The towns of Barn- 
stable, Yarmouth and Eastham, on account of their position, 
were secure from Indian depredations. The inhabitants of 
these Cape towns invited the people of Taunton, Rehoboth, 
Raynham and Bridgewater to leave their settlements and live 
with them for greater safety. Taunton replied thus: — "We 
bless Grod that he hath given us much room in your hearts, 
that you. so freely tender to us a part with you in your houses, 

6 History of Raynham, Mass. 

fields and provisions, at such a time when the Lord is threaten- 
ing us with the bereavement of our own. It much comforteth 
lis, in this day of darkness and distress. We shall want no 
succor you are able to afford us. We therefore return you all 
serious thanks for your sincere and abundant love, beseeching 
the Lord to continue and increase your ability, peace and 
promptness to relieve distress in this evil day. Nevertheless, 
upon our serious and mature deliberation upon, and considera- 
tion of your great offer, we cannot at present comply with a 
motion to remove and quit our places and leave our habitations 
to be a desolation, and that because we fear, in so doing, we 
should be wanting to the name of God and interests of Christ 
in this place, and betray much difficulty and cowardice, and 
give the adversary occasion to triumph over us to the reproach 
of that great and fearful name of God which is called upon us." 
This conscientious, elevated reply was signed by Richard 
Williams, Walter Deane and others, and shows the spirit of the 
times. These records disclose the character of the men who 
established the early settlements. Their leading object ^asto 
maintain the truths and institutions of the Christian religion, 
and in pursuing this design they could bear danger and hard- 
ships with indomitable fortitude. 


The act of the General Court, setting off Raynham into a 
distinct township, declared that it was ''competently filled 
with inhabitants.' ' It embraced thirty families. Abraham 
Jones was a principal agent in the separation, his name ap- 
pearing first on the petition. His house was near the forge, upon 
the farm iioav owned by Emory S. Wilbur. It does not appear 
that any party spirit or political difference produced the sepa- 
ration. It arose principally from the position of the people. 
At that time parish and town lines were usually the same, and 
as most of the inhabitants were too far from Taunton to attend 
public worship there conveniently, it was desirable to form a 
new town and parish. The General Court incorporated the 

First Minister. 7 

new town, of Baynham, with, the provision, " that the inhabi- 
tants of said town do, within the space of three years from the 
publication of this act, procure and settle a learned and ortho- 
dox minister of good conversation, and make provision for his 
comfortable and honorable support, and likewise provide a 
schoolmaster to instruct their children to read and write." 
The act of incorporation was granted by the council and rep- 
resentatives, in General Court assembled, April 1st, 1 731, and 
consented to by T. Belcher, the Provisional Governor, April 
6th, 1731. The council ordered Ebenezer Eobinson, one of the 
principal inhabitants, to warn a meeting of the citizens, in order 
to choose town officers. The warrant was issued under the 
authority, and in the fourth year of the reign of His Majesty 
George II. 

At the first town meeting, Samuel Leonard, Jr., was chosen 
town clerk, and John Staples, Samuel Leonard and Ebenezer 
Eobinson, selectmen. 

In 1732, John White was chosen clerk of the market. 

Elijah Dean and Thomas Baker were elected tithing-men, and 
sworn for the faithful discharge of their duty. 

It was voted that sheep and hogs may go at large. 


Anticipating the duty of supporting public worship, the 
people had erected and partially finished a meeting house two 
years before the town was incorporated. The first town meet- 
ing, for choice of officers, was held April 22d, 1731. On the 
10th of "May, following, the town voted to pay all the expenses 
which individuals had incurred in building the meetinghouse, 
and a tax was levied for that purpose. At the same meeting, 
Mr. John Wales, who had been preaching there one year and 
a half, was chosen minister. 

His salary was fixed at £100 per annum in bills of credit, 
and £200, settlement. His income was subsequently increased 
to £400, equal to £53, 6s., 8d., lawful money, or about $266. 
It was also voted to finish the church by plastering it, con- 

8 History of Raynham, Mass. 

structing pews and a gallery floor. Tliese expenses would be 
considerable, at the present clay, for so small a number of peo- 
ple. Then there was but little money in circulation, and land, 
cattle and products were exchanged principally by barter. 

Mr. Wales, who graduated at Cambridge in 1728, accepted 
the unanimous call in the following words : — 

" I rejoice to see you thus united for the support of the gos- 
pel, and can do no less than, with gratitude, acknowledge the 
respect that you have shown to me, in giving me the offer of 
settling with you ; but as the work of the gospel ministry is 
hard and difficult, so I dare not rush myself into that office 
with precipitation, but have, as I hope, sincerely laid the case 
before Grod by prayer, and earnestly sought direction from 
him ; further, I have taken the advice of sundry of my fathers 
in the ministry ; and, therefore, looking upon the call to come 
from heaven as well as from man, I dare not refuse it : but- 
accept it, earnestly asking your prayers to (rod for me. that I 
may so faithfully acquit myself in the office of a gospel minis- 
ter as to save my own soul and those whom God shall commit 
to my watch and care." Mr. Wales's comprehensive letter of 
acceptance consists of one sentence only. Not improbably its 
form and structure throw light upon the writer's style of ser- 


The records of the town show the following vote, September 
20th, 1731 ; — "Agreed to set apart the 20th of October next, 
for the ordination of Mr. John Wales, our present minister, as 
pastor and gospel minister of Christ, over a church of Christ 
in this town, the town having heretofore chosen and elected 
him thereto/' Fifteen pounds were appropriated to pay 
Zephaniah Leonard for entertaining the council. 

The church, which was organized the day before the ordi- 
nation, consisted of fourteen men and seventeen women, who 
were transferred from the first church in Taunton. 

The following record from the Church Books of the First 
Congregational Church in Taunton, by Eev. Thomas Clapp, 

A Successful Pastorate. 9 

pastor, shows the names of the persons constituting the new 
church : — 

. " At a church meeting, held at the publick Meeting house 
in Taunton, October 7, 1731 : — 

"The request of Abraham Jones, John Staples, John 
Leonard, Samuel Hacket, Senior, Joseph Jones, Samuel 
Leonard, Seth Leonard, Samuel White, Ebenezer Campbell, 
John White, Gabriel Grossman, Jonathan Hall, Thomas 
Baker and Samuel Hacket, 2d ; as also the request of Hannah 
White, Mary Hacket, Katherine Leonard, Hannah Campbell, 
Susannah White, Hannah Staples, Mehitable White, Euth 
Crane, Elizabeth Shaw, Mary Jones, Joanna Leonard, Abigail 
Hall, Lydia Britton, Patience Hacket, Sarah Hall, Eebecca 
Leonard and Abigail Baker, all brethren and sisters in full 
communion with this church, living in the town of Raynham, — 
for a dismission, was read to the church, in order to their being 
incorporated into a church state by themselves, and have the 
ordinances of the gospel administered among them. 

" The church taking the matter into consideration, and ap- 
proving their desires to be regular, voted that they be dis- 
missed accordingly, commending them to God and the word 
of his grace, which is able to build them up, and to give them 
an inheritance among all those who are sanctified. 

"At the same time the request of several persons who had 
only renewed their baptismal covenant for a dismission, was 
read, upon which the Church voted, That, if any of them did 
desire to embody in a church state with the aforesaid brothers 
and sisters, they might do it without any offence to this 

Mr. Wales's ministry continued thirty- four years. He died 
February 23d, 1765, in his sixty-sixth year. He resided in 
his own house on a cross road, about three furlongs east of 
the forge, and is represented to have possessed social powers 
which rendered him acceptable everywhere. In public prayer 
his talents were eminent, and his preaching was a faithful ex- 
hibition of the doctrines of the gospel in a plain and effective 
manner. His labors were not in vain. Prosperity attended 


10 History of Kaynham, Mass. 

Mm not only in his public ministrations, but in the education 
and advancement of his children. His son, Samuel, baptized 
March 6th, 1747, graduated at Yale College, received the de- 
gree of D. D. and became Professor of Divinity in that insti- 
tution. His son, John, was a member of the United States 
Senate, from Delaware. Catherine, who was baptized Novem- 
ber 25th, 1750, married Samuel Montgomery, a graduate of 
Yale, a Surgeon in the Revolutionary army. Her daughter, 
Catherine, married Job Godfrey, Esq., of Taunton. Mr. 
"Wales's daughter, Prudence, became the wife of Eev. Dr. 
Fobes, her father's successor. 

During Mr. Wales's ministry, one hundred and twenty-six 
persons were received into the church, and three hundred and 
fifty infants and adults baptized. Eighty-three couples were 
married by him. During his ministry, the doctrines of the 
church were but little controverted. Differences of religious 
opinion which subsequently set temple against temple, and 
altar against altar, had not arisen. According to the teaching 
of their fathers, the people remembered the Sabbath day, and 
attended public worship with punctuality. A man who neg- 
lected this duty would have been looked upon as an unworthy 
citizen. Yet there was rising a disposition to make religion 
consist too much in formality and outward observance. 


Like many in New England, this church early adopted 
what was called the half-way covenant. In the course of 
twenty-two years, thirty-five persons were admitted to the 
church by acknowledging their belief in the doctrines of the 
gospel and receiving baptism, though they did not profess to 
have experienced regeneration, and were consequently ex- 
cused from the Lord's Supper, but were entitled to the privi- 
lege of having their children baptized. This practice was 
adopted and recommended by a council composed of delegates 
from Connecticut and Massachusetts, which met in Boston, in 
June, 1656, and more especially by another council, in 1662. 

Ordination of the Second Pastor. 11 

It originated in the rule early adopted by our fathers, that all 
freemen shall be church members. The practice was estab- 
lished with difficulty, and with as much difficulty laid aside. 
It prevailed more or less for a hundred years, and, was aban- 
doned in this church, in 1760, and the scriptural rule of the 
Puritans restored. 

This town was organized in the belief and practice of evan- 
gelical doctrines. The people were true sons of the Puritans, 
respecting whom, Hume, though not their friend, declared 
that they were the first people in England who possessed the 
true principles of liberty. 


July 29th, 1776, about two years after the death of Mr. 
Wales, Perez Fobes, of Bridgewater, was chosen pastor. The 
town concurred in the choice, and voted him a salary of £78 
per annum, equal to about $390. Rev. Solomon Reed pre- 
sided at the church meeting. Twenty-one members present 
voted for Mr.' Fobes, — nine declining to vote. October 13th, 
the church invited the following clergy to assist at the ordina- 
tion, which was appointed for the 19th of November: — 

Rev. Mr. Perkins, - - West Bridgewater. 

Rev. Mr. Shaw, - - Bridgewater. 

Rev. Mr. Conant, - - Middleborough.. 

Rev. Mr. Tobey, - - Berkley. 

Rev. Mr. Reed, - - - North Middleborough. 

Rev. Mr. Turner, - - Middleborough. 

Letters missive were sent by Deacon Hall, Israel Washburn 
and Joseph Shaw, and, on the day assigned, Mr. Fobes was 
duly ordained, and commenced his long and important pas- 

Mr. Fobes graduated at Cambridge, in 1762. Though 
feeble in health, he was a diligent scholar. He had an espe- 
cial taste for scientific studies, and greatly excelled in deduc- 

12 History of Kaynham, Mass. 

inir facts from the natural world illustrative of moral and 
religious truths, and in demonstrating that the God of nature 
is the God of revelation. He had a happy faculty in commu- 
nicating the fruits of his literary researches in a familiar man- 
ner, without parade of learning. During the Revolution, not- 
withstanding his frail health, he served as a chaplain in the 
army. Tii 1786, he acted as President of Brown University 
while President Manning was absent, and was subsequently 
chosen Professor of Experimental Philosophy in the college. 
In the deficiency of adequate illustrative apparatus, he con- 
structed an orrery (which the writer has seen) designed to ex- 
hibit the mechanism of the solar sj^stem ; and, by his energy 
and application, rendered important service upon the faculty 
of the institution. In 1787, he was chosen a Fellow of the 
college, and, in 1792, received the degree of Doctor of Laws. 

The advancement of education occupied much of his time. 
It has been said "that the schools of Raynham, under his 
patronage and inspection, were for many years an example 
for the country, and bore an honorable testimony to the 
public, of the importance of a learned clergy to the country." 
But Dr. Fobes excelled as a preacher. By his own bearing- 
he illustrated the assertion of Euripides, that the clignnvy of a 
speaker adds force to his words. He had a marked talent for 
extemporaneous speaking, and could thrill an audience with 
spontaneous eloquence. His biographer writes, " that founded 
on Christ and his apostles, so happily did he blend in his creed 
the excellencies of Calvin and Arminius, that he seemed a 
friend to both ; though an acute metaphj^sician and theo- 
logian, yet knowing the gospel designed for all men, plain, 
practical discourses were his chief aim." 

He once preached the Election sermon, before the Governor 
and legislature, at the Old South Church. In the course of 
his ministry he published several discourses. One was ad- 
dressed to young people on the importance of early piety, and 
another, on the Divine and Human agency in salvation. 

He preached a sermon, which was published, at the execu- 
tion of John Dixon, at Taunton, the first white person who 

De. Fobes's Laboes. 13 

suffered the extreme penalty of the law in Bristol county. 
He also published the funeral sermon preached on the death 
of Dr. Manning, President of Brown University, and another 
sermon preached at Marshfleld, at the ordination of his son-in- 
law, Rev. Elijah Leonard, in which he shows what are the 
principal doctrines a minister should teach. He enumerated 
the truths held by the New England divines, which were the 
themes of his own discourses. 

Scholastic subtleties interested him but a little. Grace pre- 
venient and grace efficacious occupied him less than "the de- 
sign of Christianity to reduce men to the knowledge, love and 
reverence of God, to a just and loving conversation together, 
to the practice of sobriety, temperance, purity, meekness and 
the other virtues." These words of Dr. Barrow, the famous 
preacher of the seventeenth century, accurately describe the 
scope and spirit of Dr. Fobes's sermons. 

He was also the author of a catechism after the manner of 
Dr. Watts, in which the answers were in the language of scrip- 
ture. Sabbath schools were not then instituted, but it was his 
practice to instruct the children from the Westminster Assem- 
bly's Catechism. 

During Dr. Fobes's ministry of forty five years, 136 persons 
were admitted to the church ; 304 infants and adults baptized, 
and about 220 marriages solemnized. His house stood one- 
fourth of a mile east of the church, on the road to Tearall. 
His farm was of considerable extent, and was acquired through 
his wife, the daughter of Mr. Wales. The house was two stories 
in front and one in the rear, after the mode of that day. He ac- 
cumulated property and often lent money, to the convenience 
of the public, in the absence of banks. He never owned a 
riding carriage, but made all his journeys on horseback, in 
accordance with the custom of the times. 


After the death of Dr. Fobes, the church was without a pas- 
tor seven months. Mr. Hull was installed September 2d, 1812. 
He had been previously settled in Amesbury, Mass. The 

14 History of Raynham, Mass. 

council consisted of Key. J. Mittimore, Newburjf ; Rev. Elias 
Hull, Seabrook, N. Y. ; Rev. Joseph Barker, Middleboro' ; 
Rev. Dr. Reed, Bridge water ; Rev. Dr. Sanger, Bridgewater ; 
Rev. J. Pipon, Taunton, and Rev. Mr. Gushee, Dighton. 

Mr. Hull was a fluent speaker and peculiarly attractive in 
conversation. As lie was in the vigor of life, and succeeded 
an aged and feeble pastor, he awakened an unusual interest 
and sympathy among the people. A religious interest pre- 
vailed' in 1820, in which forty young and middle-aged persons 
were received into the church, and thirty-five infants were 
baptized by him. In Ma}-, 1823, he was dismissed at his own 
request, and subsequently preached in Stockbridge and Car- 
lyle. He died at sixty, and was buried beside his first wife, in 
the Central Cemetery of this town. 


The first meeting house stood a fourth of a mile east of the 
forge, on the north side of the road leading to Squawbetty. 
It was a very plain structure, without blinds, steeple, bell or 
stoves. It cost $1,400, and was conveniently placed for the 
earlj^ inhabitants. Mr. Wales preached in it thirty -four years, 
and Dr. Fobes, eight years. 

The second house was built in 1778, by Mr. Israel Wash- 
burn, by whom the pews were sold to purchasers. It stood at 
the center of the town, and, as originally constructed, had no 
steeple. The land upon which it was erected belonged to Mr. 
Amariah Hall, from whom it was purchased. It continues in 
the possession of the parish, and upon it the present church 

The pews were square and high ; the railing around them 
of turned balusters. The galleries extended on three sides ; 
there were no blinds ; the pulpit with its sounding-board stood 
on the east side. The front door opened into the broad aisle, but 
there were end doors with entries. A steeple and bell were 
added to the house some years after its erection. It had no 
apparatus for warming until 1830, when Gren. Shepard Leach, 

The Old Pulpit sent to Newport. 15 

of Easton, gave a box stove, which was placed near, the dea- 
cons' seat before the pulpit. A very correct picture of this 
house is in the possession of the writer. It is the only one in 
existence, and time increases its value. 

There was opposition to the proposals of Mr. "Washburn for 
the erection of this house. Thirty four voted to adopt the plan 
and twenty-seven opposed it. The objectors lived in the 
southerly part of the town, and undertook to repair the old 
house and continue worship there. A council ensued to heal 
the secession. This, the first church built in Raynham, stand- 
ing on the Squawbetty road, was taken down about 1780. 

The disposition made of its venerable pulpit will be seen 
from the following interesting letter by Dr. Fobes, written in 
choice ecclesiastical English, recently discovered by Mr. Eliot 
Sandford, of New York, among the forgotten records of Dr. 
Hopkins's church at Newport, Rhode Island. The gift of a 
pulpit, from Raynham to Newport, is unique. It can scarcely 
have been very elaborate in structure. The entire cost of the 
church from which it was taken reached but fourteen hundred 
dollars, and a pulpit built upon the same scale of expenditure 
probably was not of rosewood or mahogany. It had been 
seasoned, however, in the glow of sound doctrines, and suf- 
fered no declension in the occupancy of Dr. Hopkins. 

The record is prefaced as follows, in Dr. Hopkins's hand : — 

"In August, 1782, this church rceived a decent pulpit, sent 
as a present from the church in Raynham, which came to us 
by water, without any charge, accompanied by the following 
letter, viz. : " — 

"Raynham, July 28, 1782. 

u The Church of Christ in Raynham, to the First Congregational 
Church in Newport, sendeth greeting : — 

" Whereas, our beloved brother, Mr. Samuel Vinson, having 
informed us of your afflicted state, and of the many losses you 
have in the time past sustained by the reason of the British 

16 History of Rayxhav. Ma—. 

troops arnong you. and. in particular, the destruction of the 
pulpit belonging to your house of worship : 

"Holy and Beloved: — TTe lament vour calaniitv. and de- 

«/ «. t. ■ 

sire as your brothers and companions in the kingdom and 
patience of Jesus Christ, cordially to sympathize with you in 
your affliction. In testimony of this, we present you with 
another pulpit, only desiring that you would accept it as a 
little token of affection and communion with you. It was, 
we would inform you, the joint property of Colonel Shaw, 
Mr. Josiah Dean and Captain John King, and his brother, 
tain Philip King, all of this town, of whom the two first 
brethren in the church. Upon a representation of your 
circums .11 fully relinquished their rights, and left 

it in the hands and at the disposal of the church. \Ye most 
gladly received it for your sakes. and to cast it into your 
- Bury as two mites of a poor woman, most ardently wishing 
that it may be always filled with a pious and successful min- 
ist : of the gospel, and that the word of life may. through the 
. -sing of heaven, prove what the blood of ancient martyrs 
did. the seed of the church from generation to generation. 
-.---._ : ir pray..- ; Grod for us. we conclude, praying that 
ssings f every needed kind may descend from the great 
head of the church upon you and your children, and your 
stor and all of the dear people of his most import- 
ant charge. We subscribe ourselves, the brethren, in the 
faith and fellowship of God. p£REZ FoB£S p ; .. 

After the present house was :ed. in 1532. there ~ 

doubt as to the best disposition to be made of the old church. 

is house st xl near the angle of the common, leaving 

an abundance of room, and a better site for the new church 

litre of the lot TVhen complete . the old bell 

- transferred to the belfry of the new house, and the parish 

lish the old church by pulling it down, when 

some legal impedim ?re urged on behalf of the town. 

which in formei acquired a right to hold it- 

there, in consideration of having once appropriated 

Fate of the Old Meeting House. 17 

money for repairs made upon the house. Up to that time, 
town meetings had been holclen in the church, and doubtless 
many remember the litter of ballots sometimes seen in the aisles 
and before the pulpit, remaining unremoved over Sunday. 
The town had no other place to assemble. It was not proba- 
ble the parish would consent to have the new house used for 
municipal purposes, and the continuance of the old edifice 
upon the common would be inconvenient and unsightly. 
Some of the conservatives were fearful of consequences, and 
threats of a suit for damages for removal of the bell had 
already been made. 

The tower stood at the west end, fronting upon one of the 
streets that bounded the common, and was attached to the 
church by one of its sides only. Its dimensions on the ground 
were probably about twenty feet square, and tall enough to 
over-top the apex of the main building in a very command- 
ing manner. One night this tower was severed from the 
church and overturned. By a summary process, some of 
the young men (who might even now be designated) took 
it upon themselves to cut the knot which their elders 
thought it difficult to untie. In the morning, the tower lay 
upon the ground, extending across the street, interrupting 
travel, the spire projecting into the orchard of Mr. Amos 
Hall, complete with vane and lightning rod. What the con- 
tiguous dwellers thought of the crash in the night it is impos- 
sible to say, but daylight revealed the dismembered church 
and the prostrate tower, to the no small surprise of many 
lookers-on. Subsequently no serious objection was made to 
the removal of the building. Its relics were distributed 
about, and some of them could have been seen until recently 

A curious chimney head, made to revolve with the changes 
of the wind for the better delivery of smoke, was placed 
upon the chimney of the pastor's study, and there did good 
service to the draught. Subsequently it was transferred to 
the chimney of one of the deacons. The only blinds on the 
church were placed inside upon the window behind the pulpit. 
They were comparatively modern, and, being in good condi- 


History of Raynham, Mass. 

tion, were reining upon the parsonage. The gilded vane was 
preserved for a number of years in the parsonage carriage- 
house. The old horse-block, a flat stone in one piece, at least 
ten feet square, placed upon pillars at a convenient height for 
mounting, when saddles and pillions were the mode of con- 
veyance, stood near the door of the ancient church. A mem- 
ber of the parish (Mr. Briareas Hathaway) bought this stone, 
and, with considerable labor, carried it nearly a mile and made 
it the floor of a house for some of his domestic animals. 


The fourth pastor of this church was Eev. Enoch Sanford, 
of Berkley, who graduated at Brown University, in the class 
of 1820, and was subsequently tutor in that institution two 
years. He studied Theology with Calvin Park, D. D., Pro- 
fessor of Moral Philosophy in the college, and was admitted 
to orders in the ministry, by the Old Colony Association at 
Berkley, in 1822. He had preached a year in Seekonk, while 
an officer in the college, was evangelical, but not high Calvin- 
istic, and conservative in his sentiments. As there were in 
Raynham a number verging towards Unitarianism, it was 
thought he would not be unacceptable to the different parties, 
and, after preaching here four months, was ordained October 
2d, 1823. The vote calling him was unanimous, and the sal- 
ary five hundred dollars, with the use of the parsonage and 
glebe. At his ordination a great assembly collected, filling 
the house below and above. The ordaining council was com- 
posed of 

Rev. Pitt Clark, - 
Rev. Calvin Park, D. J)., 
Rev. Abraham Gushee, 
Rev. Luther Hamilton, 
Rev. R. M. Hodges, 
Rev. Philip Colby, - 
Rev. Thomas Andros, ? 









Rev. Thomas Anclros preached the ordination sermon, and 
Mr. Grushee offered the ordaining prayer ; Mr. Hamilton gave 
the right hand of fellowship ; Mr. Clark the charge, and Mr. 
Colby the concluding prayer. The council and visitors were 
entertained by Peyton Randolph Leonard, at the King Philip 
mansion, near the forge, — the famous old house built about 
1670. The council walked in procession to the church, led 
by Rev. Mr. Andros, the moderator, in his canonical robe. 
The music at the ordination was by the Beethoven Society, 
composed of select singers from several towns, under the 
leadership of Colonel Adoniram Crane, of Berkley. 

For several years Mr. Sanford maintained pulpit exchanges 
with the neighboring clergy indiscriminately ; but when the 
distinction between Orthodoxy and Unitarianism became 
more accurately denned, he deemed it inconsistent with 
his duty to continue exchanges with ministers of the latter 
denomination. This refusal raised opposition from a portion 
of the church and society, which presently took a definite 
form and expression. While Mr. Sanford was absent at the 
anniversaries in Boston, the dissatisfied members prepared a 
remonstrance, requesting him not to discontinue such ex- 
changes, stating therein that his settlement was on the expec- 
tation that ministerial intercourse should be maintained alike 
with liberal and orthodox clergymen irrespectively. 

On his return another memorial was presented, desiring him 
to regulate the matter of exchanges according to his own judg- 
ment and discretion, — -declaring that his settlement was not on 
the expectation that he should exchange with Unitarians. 
This paper was signed by about two-thirds of the voting mem- 
bers of the church and society. Prior to this time the line of 
separation had never been so clearly drawn. There were Ar- 
ticles of Faith adopted and formerly used by the church, in 
admitting members. This creed and covenant was similar to 
that of other evangelical churches, but had been lost or sup- 
pressed during Mr. Hull's ministry. 

These discords resulted in the formation of an Unitarian 
Society, in 1828, comprising twenty -five of the church 

20 History of Raynham, Mass. 

and a portion of the society. The new organzaition, styled 
the Second Congregational Society, included some of the 
most respected and influential families in the town. They first 
worshipped in Captain Keuben Hall's public hall, and at length 
built a church a little north of the first chuch, on land presented 
by Ellis Hall, Esq., and engaged Bev. Simeon Doggett, of Men- 
don, for their minister, who continued to preach while the or- 
ganization was maintained. 

The new society received few accessions, and, at the end of 
a dozen years, services were discontinued, and a portion of the 
congregation and their pastor attended public worship at the 
old church. 

Before the separation was accomplished, various circum- 
stances occurred, tending to a division. Some wished to in- 
troduce the Unitarian Hymn book. The leader of the choir, 
Mr. Otis Washburn, conferred with Mr. Sanford upon the ex- 
pediency of the change, who advised to leave the decision to 
the church. New books were, however, distributed among the 
choir without further consultation. On the following Sunday, 
when the hymn was announced from Watts as usual, the choir 
remained silent. In the afternoon, Mr. Wheeler Wilbur vol- 
unteered to lead the tune, and the choir followed in the accus- 
tomed hymn. Soon after, at a meeting of the church and 
society, a majority determined to make no change in the hymn 

Subsequently, difficulties arose concerning the funds of the 
first society, the trustees of which were Horatio Leonard, Maj. 
John Gilmore and others, who were all among the seceders. 
They refused to pay over the income of the investment. Suit 
was brought, and the case conducted by Z. Eddy, of Middle- 
borough, carried before the Supreme Court, where the decision 
was in favor of the first society, on the ground that the funds 
were originally given to it ; and those who withdrew from the 
society could not lawfully carry any portion of the funds with 
them. The income then was about $200, — formerly it had been 
more. Not long after, Captain Edward Leonard left to the so- 
ciety, by his will, a legacy of $1,000 and land worth $800. He 


The Peesent House of Woeship. 21 

also gave $1,000 to the Unitarian society, in behalf of his 
brother Samuel, who intended to make the bequest had he 
executed a will. 

After a service of nearly twenty-five years, Mr. Sanford re- 
signed, in 1847. Notwithstanding the Unitarian withdrawal, 
during that period the church increased and prospered, receiv- 
ing, during his ministry, one hundred and twenty-five new 
members, augmenting its numbers from eighty to one hundred 
and forty-nine. Largely through his influence the society re- 
ceived several thousand dollars in donations and legacies. The 
Sabbath school was instituted in 1823, and Dea. E. B. Deane 
became the first superintendent. Amicable relations were 
maintained with the venerable pastor of the new society, and 
no dissonance ever arose. In the superintendence of the public 
schools, where Mr. Sanford was active for thirty years, and in 
sustaining the various public interests of the community, the 
two pastors acted cordially together. 

In 1824, Mr. Sanford was married to Miss Caroline White, 
of "Weymouth. They lived, for more than twenty years, in 
the parsonage house, and there five children were born. Be- 
fore the era of railroads, when all travelling was by horses and 
mueh of it by private conveyance, the parsonage was a centre 
of hospitality for clergymen and friends passing that way. 
Here Mr. Sanford resided until he built a new house, an eighth 
of a mile distant, where he continues to live. Of his children, 
two are successful physicians, one a lawyer and one a manu- 
facturer. ' t - 


now standing, was commenced in 1832. The corner-stone was 
laid in May, with religious services, and the house soon com- 
pleted. The church contains sixty- eight pews, and cost about 
$5,000. It was dedicated in March, 1834, in the presence of a 
large audience, and the pews were subsequently sold for a 
thousand dollars more than the cost of the house. The church 
was built by contract, by Mr. Peterson, of Duxbury, under 
the superintendence of Mr. Amos Hall, for which he received 

22 Histoky of Kaynham, Mass. 

$50. Mr. Hall died at an advanced age, in 1869. He was a 
man of integrity, conservative in sentiment, and much relied 
upon for counsel and advice. 

When originally built the house contained two elevated pews 
in the rear of the singers ? gallery, designed for persons of color. 
These lofty seats were constructed contrary to the advice of the 
pastor, and were removed in 1866, when the church was repaired 
and renovated. 

In the vestibule of the house, where the stove once stood 
before a furnace for warming was introduced, there formerly 
hung a glass case,- interesting to the connubially inclined, 
in which the publication of the bans of intended marriages was 
made, in accordance with the ancient law. For many years 
the instrumental accompaniment of the choir consisted of Dea. 
Elijah Ghishee's viol and the double bass viol played by Mr. 
Sumner Knapp. When an organ was introduced, in subse- 
quent years, Mr. Ruel Hall and (after his decease) Mr. Ed- 
ward King played the instrument. For twenty-five years, Mr. 
Sumner Knapp has been leader of the choir, in which many 
excellent musicians have been members. 

The disposition of the old house, which was permitted to 
stand until the completion of the new one, has been related on 
a previous page. After its destruction the town had no place 
to assemble until the present hall was built. One town meet- 
ing was warned upon the site of the demolished church, and 
convened there on a cold day in November. After the meet- 
ing was organized in the open air, Maj. E. B. Deane invited 
the assembly to adjourn to a comfortably warmed building in 
the vicinity. The suit which the town brought against the 
parish for damages, in taking down the church, in which it was 
alleged the town had acquired an interest, was decided ad- 
versely to the plaintiffs. It appeared that the parish had 
acted legally in appraising the pews and tendering payment to 
each owner. 


a graduate of Andover Theological Seminary, was settled in 
1847. The installation sermon was preached by Kev. Erastus 

The Seventh Pastor. 23 

Maltby, of Taunton, of which town Mr. Carver was a native. 
As a preacher lie was earnest and plain. He adapted himself 
successfully to the wants and requirements of the common 
apprehension, and diligently illustrated and enforced the truth. 
As a pastor, he was noted for amiability, sincerity and a per- 
severing application to duty. In 1853, he was elected repre- 
sentative to the legislature, and, soon after, resigned his pas- 
toral charge to remove to Norton. Subsequently, he preached 
in South Franklin. At the commencement of the Eebellion 
he became chaplain of the 7th Massachusetts regiment, and was 
present at the seven days : battle before Richmond, under Gen. 
McClellan, from the suffering and exposure of which his health 
became impaired beyond permanent recovery. Rev. Mr. 
Maltby preached his funeral sermon, and he lies in the North 
Cemetery at Taunton. 

The next clergyman, Rev. John Haskell, devoted his abili- 
ties assiduously to the ministerial work. Installed January 
15th, 1859, he remained about five years. 

The Rev. W. J. Breed, who succeeded Mr. Haskell, was a 
native of Taunton and a graduate of Yale College in the class 
of 1 831. He had been settled in Providence and Nantucket 
before coming to Raynham. He was a man of popular talents, 
well educated in classical and sacred literature, and of tenacious 
memory." "When young he had travelled in Europe. His 
presence and address were agreeable and commanding ; his 
eye clear, and his physiognomy intellectual. His voice filled 
the house without effort, and his utterance was fluent. 

His sermons were usually written, and the notes closely fol- 
lowed except at the conclusion, when he was capable of speak- 
ing extemporaneously with animation and force. His pulpit 
prayers were sometimes long, but pertinent and fervent, and 
prompted by an elevated spirit of devotion. His scriptural 
views were evangelical and comprehensive, and his preaching 
more practical than doctrinal. His style was logical, and he 

24 History of Raynham:, Mass. 

was capable of writing in a lucid, compressed manner, adapted 
to every understanding. 

He married Mary, daughter of Jesse Smith, of Taunton, and 
his domestic relations were extremely happy. After leaving 
Raynham, he made his home at the house of Eev. T. T. Rich- 
mond, of Taunton. There, at his brother-in-law's, he died of 
heart disease, April, 1869, aged fifty-nine years. His wife, 
two sons and two daughters survive. 

Rev. F. A. Fisk succeeded, and was inducted to the settle- 
ment by public services, at which Rev. Dr. Blake, of Taunton, 
preached ; Rev. Mr. Maltby gave the charge, and Rev. Mr. 
Edwards, of North Middleborough, offered the installing prayer. 
After officiating one year, Mr. Fisk resigned in order to join 
the Episcopal church. 


1731. John Staples and 1797. Abiel Williams and 
Samuel Leonard. Oliver Washburn. 

1741. Jonathan Shaw. 1819. Lloyd Shaw. 

1750. Jonathan Hall and 1824. Horatio Leonard. 

Edmund Williams. 1828. Eliab B. Deane and 

1761. Elijah Leonard and Elijah Grushee. 

Israel Washburn. 1850. Samuel Jones. 

1780. Jonathan Shaw. 


Dr. Fobcs stated, in 1793, that there were one thousand in- 
habitants in Raynham, one-sixth of whom were Baptists. 
When there was no distinction between town and parish, all 
the inhabitants were required, by law, to pay the assessments 
laid for ministerial support. In 1783, the town voted not to 
compel those who professed to be Baptist to pay the clerical 
tax for the support of a minister whose preaching they could 
not conscientiously attend, alleging that " to compel them to 

Kev. Simeon Doggett. „ 25 

pay it would endanger that peace and harmony which should 
subsist in a town society." 

The Baptist Church was organized in 1839, and a house 
of worship built a few years after. Rev. Ebenezer Briggs be- 
came the first pastor, and, under his ministrations, the Church 
largely increased. He formerly lived on the shores of Long 
Pond, in Middleborough, where, upon his own farm, he main- 
tained a generous hospitality. His preaching was earnest, 
faithful and effective, and his correct life reflected the sincer- 
ity of his heart. 

Rev. Ephraim Ward, of Middleborough, a graduate of 
Brown University, succeeded Mr. Briggs and preached accept- 
ably three years, when he resigned and removed to Illinois. 
In 1846, Rev. Silas Hall became minister, and has since been 
followed by a number of preachers who remained but a short 
term each. 

The Deacons of this Church are Godfrey Robinson, Esq., 
and Capt. William King. The chief benefactor and patron of 
the Society was Mr. Asa King, whose life is included in the 
published " Genealogy of the King Family." 


pastor of the Unitarian Church, came from Mendon to Rayn- 
ham soon after the formation of the church, in 1828, and died 
in 1852. He was the first preceptor of Bristol Academy, a 
scholarly man of dignified habits, and highly respected for his 
worth. He married a daughter of Br. Fobes, and lived at the 
Centre, in the house now occupied by E. B. Dean. His will, 
on record at the probate office, commences thus : " Impressed 
with the words of the prophet Isaiah, who said to Hezekiah, 
'Set thine house in order, for thou shalt die and not live.'" 
His funeral sermon was preached by Rev. Charles Brigham, of 
Taunton. Of his family, one son is a clergyman ; another son 
died soon after entering the bar, and a third, Perez, is in the 
practice of medicine at Wareham. His daughter, Abbie, mar- 
ried Mr. William R. Dean, of Boston. 


26 History of Raynham, Mass. 

the spirit of " seventy-six." 

Daring the Revolution the quota of men for the war was 
large and readily filled. On the first call for soldiers, Ser- 
geant Greorge King rode through the town with drum and fife, 
calling at every house with the proclamation, " Rally ! the 
British are shooting our Massachusetts men ! Rally, and drive 
them out of the country! " 

Minute men, with three days' provisions packed, were in 
readiness at call. Benjamin King was one of the committee 
of safety for this section of country. Dr. Fobes describes the 
political spirit as active and prompt. He states that the mili- 
tia companies were well disciplined and equipped. 

In 1786, there were unlawful attempts to prevent the sitting 
of the courts ; and when it was rumored a mob would be gath- 
ered to obstruct the session at Taunton, the two Raynham 
companies volunteered to guard the court house. They 
marched to Taunton and occupied the court room, laying on 
their arms all night. The next day reinforcements arrived 
from Plymouth, which, with the Raynham companies, under 
command of Gren. Cobb, maintained order and protected the 
session of the court. 

In 1810, there were two companies of uniformed militia in 
the town. The south company was commanded by Capt. 
Barzillai King, and the north company by Capt. Simeon Wil- 
bur. Their uniform was caps plumed with horse hair, and 
coats faced with red. 

In the war of the Rebellion this town was prompt in fur- 
nishing men at the call of the government. Twelve of the 
flower of its youth fell in battle or died in hospital, and 
$25,000 were raised for bounties and gratuities. 


Among the first settlers were the Leonards. They and 
their descendants were intelligent and enterprising, and, by 
their influence, instrumental in promoting the best interests of 



College G-kaduates. 27 

the town. The Washburne families were equally intelligent 
and respected. Israel Washburne, the third of that name, 
removed to Maine. He had three sons who became members 
of Congress from three different States, — one of them was Gov- 
ernor of Maine, and another, Elihu B. Washburne, was United 
States Secretary of State, and now is Minister to France. The 
King families have held a high standing. The first of that 
name was John King, who settled here in 1680, near the river. 
The Shaw families are to be remembered for their adherence 
to religion and justice. The Deans have ranked high. One 
of them was formerly a member of Congress. The Halls, 
Grushees, Williamses, Gilmores, Andrews, Hathaway s, Whites, 
Tracys and Knapps have honorably promoted the best interests 
of the town. 


The first settlers were intelligent and virtuous, and having 
made great sacrifices in coming to the wilderness, determined 
to give their children opportunities for instruction. Until 
after the Eevolution the schoolmaster instructed the children 
in reading, writing, arithmetic and morals, for £10 a year. His 
school was occasionally removed from one section of the town to 
another, for the convenience of his pupils. Some of the intel- 
ligent boys studied surveying, and all recited weekly from the 
Assembly's Catechism. 

Many school teachers, male and female, have originated in 
this town and some of them have attained superiority in the 

Of those who have received college degrees, there are the 
following : — 

Zephaniah Leonard, (Yale,) 1785, colonel, and high sheriff, 
Bristol county. 

Joshua Leonard, (Brown,) 1788, pastor, Pompey, K Y. 

John Hathaway, (Brown.) 1793, pastor in Maine. 

Zephaniah Leonard, (Brown,) 1793, physician in Virginia. 

William Augustus Leonard, (Brown,) 1793, merchant. 

Jahaziah Shaw, (Brown,) 1792, lawyer, Maine. 

28 Histoey of Ratnham, Mass. 

Mason Shaw, (Brown,) 1795, lawyer. 

Llovcl Bowen Hall, (Brown,) 1795. 

Elijah Leonard, (Harvard,) pastor, Mansfield. 

Abiel Williams, (Brown,) 1795, pastor, Dudley. 

Abraham Grushee, (Brown,) 1798, pastor, Dighton. 

Samuel "Wales, (Yale,) professor of divinity. 

Samuel King Williams, (Brown,) 1804, lawyer, Boston. 

Jonathan Grilmore, (Brown,) 1800, pastor, Maine. 

Philo Hortensius Washburn, (Brown,) 1801, lawyer, Maine. 

John G-ilmore Deane, (Brown,) 1806, pastor, Maine. 

Melvin Gilmore, (Brown,) 1805. 

Silas Hall, (Brown,) 1809, pastor, Taunton. 

Eliab Williams, (Brown,) 1821, lawyer, Fall Eiver. 

George Leonard, (Brown,) Portland, Maine. 

Abiel Williams, (Yale,) 1835, M. D. 

Christopher Williams, (Brown.) 

Linus Shaw, (Brown,) pastor, Mendon. 

Edward Sanford, (Harvard,) M. D., Attleborough. 

Enoch Warren Sanford, (Brown,) physician, Brookline. 

Elliot Sanford, (Amherst,) 1861, lawyer, 1ST. Y. 

Amos Bobinson, (Brown,) 1861, pastor. 

An account of the educational and intellectual features of 
Raynham would be imperfect without an allusion to the 
Lyceum, or debating society, existing thirty years ago. Its 
organization embraced most of the intelligent residents at the 
centre, and the active minds of the time participated in its 
deliberations. During the winter, for many seasons, there were 
debates upon the topics of the day and objects of literary 
interest, and once a fortnight a lecture was expected either 
from gentlemen at home or from abroad. Hon. Francis Bay- 
lies, of Taunton, sometimes read an address, or the audience 
listened to an essay from William P. Doggett, the talented son 
of Rev. Simeon Doggett. 

Mr. Eli K. Washburn, distinguished for sound sense and a 
clear understanding, frequently spoke. Once or more Joseph 
Dixon, chemist and necromancer, then of Taunton, lectured 
before the Lyceum, and the neighboring clergy were nearly 

<"! i 

Mechanical Pursuits. 29 

all heard. The meetings of the association were originally 
held in the hall which formerly' stood where John A. Hall's 
house is now built. The hall was in the second story, 
curiously frescoed in the style of the day. When the house 
to which it was attached was taken down, the hall was removed 
to the rear of the premises where it is still standing. 

After the town house was built, the Lyceum held its sessions 
there, and divided with the singing schools the social interest 
of the winter. A well selected library of standard books 
belonged to the organization. 

The clergy of Raynham have uniformly been active in pro- 
moting secular instruction. Scholarly men themselves, they 
have sought to diffuse knowledge by their influence and 
example. Several of them have devoted leisure time to the 
instruction of young men who wished to pursue advanced 
studies in mathematics and languages, and their care for the 
public schools has been unremitting. For a third of a cen- 
tury, Mr. Sanford, in conjunction with other efficient gentle- 
men, devoted constant attention to the improvement of the 
common schools. 


The second meeting house was planned and built by 
Israel Washburn, who lived at the east end of Pleasant street. 
Benaiah Dean was a noted house builder. Jedediah Leach 
built a house annually, for nearly twenty years. Elisha Free- 
man, Lyman Wilbur, Pythagoras Dean, Oliver K. Wilbur and 
William Wilbur, have erected factories, mills and dwellings. 


Alexander Bradford and Peleg Cook were in the forge 
forty years, and have made valuable improvements in the 
manufacture of anchors. 

Capt. Ziba Wilbur pursued blacksmi thing thirty-five years. 
He was a soldier in the war of 1812, and, for seven years, select- 
man. Sylvanus Makepeace carries on blacksmithing and car- 
riage work. 

30 History of Raynham, Mass. 


There were formerly two tanners in town. One of them, Capt. 
Abraham Hathaway, a soldier of the Revolution and a promi- 
nent man, lived to ninety years. The other tanner was Capt. 
Reuben Hall, who lived where the house of his grandson, John 
A. Hall, now stands. Capt. Hall's son, Ellis, inherited his father's 
tannery, farm and mills. He was, for a long time, a director, 
and, for several years, president of the Taunton Bank. Brick 
were made by Capt. Barzillai King. 


Oliver S. Wilbur lost mills valued at $6,000, and soon after 
a barn, full of hay, two horses and mowing machine. J. H. 
Britton's store was burned with a loss of $8,000. Also, stores 
of Mr. Hanscome, Sylvanus Makepeace, the houses of Joseph 
Deane, Asaph Tracy, James Leonard, and the barns of Ziba 
Wilbur, William Robinson and Col. W. Lincoln. Alvan 
Dean's house was struck by lightning and consumed. Orin 
Dean and Alison Field also lost houses by fire. The largest 
tire was that of the-Old Colony Shovel Works. 


Nehemiah Jones kept a variety store, for many years, at the 
centre. He was also postmaster. Abisha Lincoln traded at 
the north end. Sylvanus Makepeace, at Prattville ; Hanscome 
and Samuel Robinson, at Grilmoreville ; and Theodore King 
and Edward Wilbur, at the centre. Richard Leonard, post- 
master, was associated with King and Wilbur. At the south 
end were David Dean and Chauncy Gr. Washburn ; at the east, 
Silas Shaw. 


Early in the century Dr. Seth Washburn practiced to some 
extent. Dr. Walker came here in 1815, and acquired an 
extensive business, which he was obliged, before long, to aban- 
don on account of ill health. In 1820, Elisha Hayward, of 
Easton, a graduate of Brown University, in the class of 1817, 

Civil Officeks. 31 

commenced practice. He studied medicine at New Haven, 
under the famous Dr. Smith, and acquired an excellent medi- 
cal education. 

He soon had a good practice, extending into the neighboring 
towns. His personal characteristics were strict integrity, kind- 
ness of heart and devotion to the interests of his patients. 
He was unselfish in the discharge of his duties, thinking more 
of the well-being of others, than of his own advantage. With 
an individuality peculiarly his own, — with no ambition beyond 
his business, farm and home, — he was nevertheless a faithful 
practitioner, respected for his steadiness of purpose, and re- 
garded by a large circle of patients as their firm friend and 
reliable adviser. He died in 1868, at the age of seventy-four, 
and Eev. Mr. Sanford pronounced his eulogy. 

Graius Dean, M. D., resided in this town, for several years, 
towards the close of his life, which had been principally spent 
in Yirginia, where he had a lucrative practice. He was a 
native of Taunton, son of Deacon Ebenezer Dean, and a grad- 
uate of Brown University, in the class of 1795. As his 
health became infirm, he removed to this town with his chil- 
dren, and resided near his sister, Mrs. Abraham Grushee. His 8-^77^^^/- 
motto was " Miser miseris succurrare disco" — Infirm myself, I 
learn to succor the miserable. His only surviving son occu- 
pies the farm of the former high sheriff, Horatio Leonard, 
where his improved methods of cultivation demonstrate the 
value of scientific agriculture, applied with intelligence and 


Two persons have lived beyond a hundred years. Mrs. 
Abigail Leonard, wife of Col. Zephanias Leonard, and Mrs. 
Lydia Snow, whose home was with Miss Hannah Jones, near 
the forge. Few epidemics have prevailed, and the general con- 
dition of the town is favorable to longevity. 


Jonathan Shaw, at the north end, was an acting justice for 
many years. He was a firm supporter of law and order, and 

32 History of Baynham, Mass. 

criminals received their deserts at his hands. Capt. Samuel 
Wilbur was a justice and deputy sheriff, and, once, a member 
of the Legislature. 

Nathaniel Britton, a justice, sometimes solemnized marriages. 
Seth Dean Wilbur, in addition to his duties as a justice, is 
much engaged in the settlement of estates, drawing legal 
instruments and wills. 

At the center, ISTehemiah Jones was a justice of the 
peace ; also, Amos Hall, E. B. Dean, Ellis Hall and Hon. 
Josiah Dean. At the south part of the town, Godfrey Bob- 
inson has long held the commission of the peace. 


Col. Zephaniah Leonard was high sheriff of the county, 
about thirty years. His son, Horatio Leonard, succeeded him, 
and held the office thirty-five years. 


The anchor forge was originally built for the extraction of 
iron from the ore, and for the manufacture of the numerous 
articles in iron needed by a young colony. Cart tires, chim- 
ney cranes, andirons, hooks, spikes, nails, axes, chains, plough- 
shares and bolts were among the various products. It was 
conducted for many years by Hon. Josiah Dean, and the iron 
work for his ship building was wrought there. William 
Byram was his foreman. E. B. Dean, son of Josiah, inherited 
it, and it is now conducted by Theodore Dean, and wholly 
devoted to the manufacture of anchors. 

The Baynham Furnace, now discontinued, formerly stood 
on a branch of Two-mile river. It was owned by Israel Wash- 
burn, who manufactured hollow ware. A grist mill has long 
stood on the same dam. Of late years, Gr. W. King has manu- 
factured nails and shovels there, adding a steam engine for 
increased power. About 1840, a freshet burst the dam and 
destroyed the works. They were restored, and burned in 
1846, and again re- erected. 

At the same place, the Baynham Tack Company had exten- 

Manufactures. 33 

sive works, which, were consumed in 1868. They have been 
rebuilt by Eobinson, Bounds & Co. On the west branch of 
Two-mile river, Emery S. Wilbur has a saw and grist mill. 
On its east branch, are the mills of Oliver S. Wilbur, 
burned in 1866, and rebuilt. On the next dam below, are 
the saw mills of John Tracy. At the centre, are the saw, 
shingle and grist mills, long owned by Ellis Hall. The 
head of water is twelve feet and the capacity of the pond 
large. In 1869, D. (x. Williams and W. 0. Snow bought the 
estate, and are erecting a new manufactory. At the mouth of 
Two-mile river, there are works for the manufacture of 
wrought iron nails, by machinery, owned by Martin GL Wil- 
liams. At the same place, there is a saw mill and a rapidly 
running grist mill driven by a turbine wheel. At the north, 
Bradford D. Snow had a shop run by steam, recently burned. 
At Squawbetty, Jahaziah S. King has carried on, for a long 
time, the manufacture of nails, shovels and hay -forks. 

At Squawbetty, lying on both sides of Taunton river, partly 
in Taunton and partly in Eaynham, are the Old Colony Iron 
Works. They cover four acres of ground, and employ seven 
hundred workmen. Railroad tracks run through the works, 
and a steam tug brings freight up the river, entering the shops, 
by a lock and canal. The water power is not excelled in the 
county, except at Fall River. The dam was first erected 
sixty years ago, by Stephen King. Successive increase has 
brought the works to their present extensive proportions. 
Ten chimneys, seventy feet high, show where the iron is 
heated, to be rolled into bars, plates and rods. The power of 
the rolling mill is enormous ; its balance wheel is thirty-five 
feet in diameter. Iron wire, nails and shovels are produced 
in large quantities. A single machine, of which there are 
hundreds, will make three nails per second. August 15, 1869 
the shovel shop, three "hundred feet long, in which there were 
a hundred dozen shovels in process of manufacture, was 
burned, entailing a loss of $150,000 — one-half insured. It 
was rebuilt in 1870. 



34 History of Rayxham, Mass. 


This branch, of business was introduced, thirty years ago by 
C: ssander and Henry T. Gilmore. After the death of his bro- 
ther. Cassander erected a large factory on the west side of the 
Blue Hill turnpike, where improved machinery for cutting, peg- 
ging, sewing, binding and eye-letting, driven by steam power, is 
in operation. Another factory, near the center, is owned by 
A. B. Keith. A third shop for similar work, owned by William 
0. Sd ". stands on Pleasant street. The work of making shoes 
formerly carried on in isolated shops, where a few persons 
conducted the whole process by hand. Machinery and orga- 
nized labor have superseded the old method. 


The surface of the town inclines towards the south, as 
shown by the streams of water running in that direction. 

Taunton river is the natural boundary of the town, on the 
southerly side, except for a short distance, where two farms 
lying on the other side, are included in Eaynham. Smootch 
Hill, in the : -.>:. and Steep Hill, in the west, are the principal 
elevati : na The classic fields of Tearall, as their name implies, 
are not smooth and leveL 

Bocks are abundant in the east : the center is better adapted 
for tillage. The best soil is found in the farms bordering upon 
Taunton river. A portion of the town is covered with pine, 
oak and cedar forests. Its northern boundaries are Hokamock 
swamp and Xipinickit pond. The Fowling pond lies on the 
t side. Formerly, it was much larger than at present. It 
is surrounded by cedar forests and cranberry meadows. The 
Indian King Philip, with his warriors, attracted by the game, 
1 to have a hunting lodge on its borders. It was famous 
for its wild ducks and geese. 

The town consists mainly of five villages, separated by 
intervals of farming land. At Gilmoretown, near the depot of 
the Old Col : railroad, there are forty or fifty houses. 

Prattville is a mile south, where a prosperous village has 

Public Works, etc. 35 

arisen. Squawbetty is the principal center of iron manufac- 
tures, conducted under the agency of Charles and Enoch 
Robinson, and their sons. At the south, there is another vil- 
lage about the Baptist church, where there are some of the 
best farms in the town. 

The fifth village is the center, containing two churches, 
post office, store and numerous inhabitants and their dwellings. 


There are four of these, where the dust of six generations 
reposes. The first three pastors lie in the central cemetery, 
and there Rev. Simeon Doggett is interred. This burial place 
on Pleasant street is well inclosed and planted with trees. 
"Within it are many well executed monnments commemora- 
tive of the dead. This cemetery has received much care and 
attention in the way of preservation and embellishment. 


Beside the minor bridges spanning the numerous streams, 
there are two larger one over Taunton River. Robinson's 
bridge is maintained wholly by this town ; the bridge at 
Squawbetty is jointly sustained by Raynham and Taunton. 
They are both of wood. 


The parsonage house of the First Society was originally 
built by Amariah Hall, and bought of Hon. Josiah Dean, 
during the ministry of Mr. Hull. It was erected in 1761, 
and used for a tavern during the revolution. The house 
is two stories high, large chimney in the center, two rooms 
wide on the front, and nearly square in form. Two laro'e 
buttonwood or sycamore trees formerly stood on the west 
side. The disease, which eveiywhere prevailed among but- 
tonwoods, affected these trees, impairing their vitality, and 
they were cut clown in 1810. The fine honey locust {Gledits- 
chia triacanthus) was brought from the place of Professor 
Drown, in Foster, R. I, by Rev. Mr. Sanford, when the tree 

36 History of Kaynham, Mass. 

was not larger than the thumb. Bev. Mr. Hull built the por- 
tico before the house ; and the front fence was built by Mr. San- 
ford, who occupied the place twenty years, until he removed 
into his own house. 


The fisheries of Taunton river have always been valuable 
to the towns bordering upon it. Each town is allowed, by the 
statutes, to have two seines, and the privilege of fishing is 
usually sold to the highest bidder, for about $150 annually. 

The fish, ascend the river in the Spring, seeking the ponds 
at the head waters for breeding places. At Squawbetty, the 
herring way, an opening in the dam established by law, is an 
inclined plane, down which the water rushes with great force. 
Notwithstanding the obstruction, the fish make their way up 
to the shallow ponds. The number of eggs which each her- 
ring spawn is estimated at 750,000, constituting about one- 
third of the weight of the fish. 


The style of building, a century ago, varied much from the 
present modes. The best dwellings were framed from oak, 
nothing less durable being thought sufficient, and home-grown 
pine afforded covering and finish. The primitive growth of 
cedar supplied the best of shingles, which were sawed by the 
numerous mills in town. The houses were all low in the 
stories, with small windows and projecting beams. The pent 
roof usually sloped nearly to the ground in the rear. A 
mammoth chimney in the center occupied the space denied 
to hall and stairs. The monstrous fire-places, which would 
burn cord-wood, into which a man could walk erect, were 
famous for roasting beef, smoking bacon, and affording super- 
fluous ventilation. It was the style of those days to build 
small cellars from which the light was excluded. 


formerly stood near the forge, and was probably erected about 
1670. A vane upon one of the gables bears a later date. The 

The Leonard House. 37 

following interesting account of the house is from Dr. Fobes's 
history of Raynham, published in 1793 : — 

" In the cellar was deposited, for a considerable time, the 
head of King Philip ; for it seems that even Philip shared the 
fate of kings ; he was decollated, and his head carried about, 
and shown by one Alderman, the Indian who shot him. 

" There is yet in being an ancient case of drawers which 
stood in the house, upon which the deep scars and mangled 
impressions of Indian hatchets are now visible. Under the 
door steps of the same house lie buried the bones of two 
young women, who, in their flight here, were shot by the 
Indians ; but more fortunate was the flight of Uriah Leonard, 
who, as he was riding from Taunton, was fired upon by the 
Indians. But he swung his hat around, which started his 
horse in full canter ; he reached the dam without a wound, but 
bullets passed through the hat, and the neck of the horse he 
rode. While Deacon Nathaniel Williams was at work, with 
some others in the fields on the south side of the road, about 
half a mile from the forge, one of the number discovered a 
motion in the bushes, at a little distance ; he immediately pre- 
sented his gun and fired, upon which the Indians were heard 
to cry, ; Cocoosh V and ran off; but soon after, one of the Indians 
was found dead, near the Fowling pond." 

It may be added, that the Leonard house was demolished 
about thirty years ago. The principal portion was taken down. 
A part of it was converted into a farm building, and another 
portion removed a short distance northerly, from its original 
site, became a cottage, which is still standing. The house, 
in its original form, had at least five gables, a projecting 
front, and a narrow wing on the north side. A tolerably cor- 
rect picture of the ancient mansion may be found in Barker's 
Historical Collections. 

Between the dwellings of the year 1700 and the houses of 
to-day, the contrast is as great as in the other material improve- 
ments which have supervened upon the early era and the 
unskilled methods of that period. 

38 History of Rayxham, Mass. 

In the former time, if the roof kept out a part of the rain 
and if the walls broke the wind without intercepting it stolera- 
bly free entrance, the house was pronounced comfortable, and 
a fit dwelling for large land-owners and worthy men. The 
candles would flare on the table from the wind through the 
chinks, but the open seams maintained a healthy atmosphere 
within. The chairs were often of rude construction, and the 
house furniture of the most primitive kind. The tables were 
set with pewter or sparingly furnished with Delft ware, and 
the food was plain and coarse. In the older houses the sashes 
were of lead with diamond-shaped panes. Neither the inside 
or outside of the house received painting, and carpets were 

Bishop Hall says — 

" Look to the towered cliinmeys, which should he 
The wind pipes of good hospitalitie." 

Originally, they were built of stone, but they were essential 
characteristics of a human habitation, and distinguished it from 
other buildings. 

Dr. Holmes's description of the early Puritan's house was 
often literally true : — 

" His home was a freezing cahin, 

Too poor for a hungry rat; 
The roof was thatched with ragged grass, 

And had enough at that. 
The hole that served for a window 

"Was glazed with an ancient hat, 
And the ice was gently thawing 

From the log on which he sat." 

At present, good finish, paint and embellishment are the 
order of construction in dwellings. In every section of the 
town there are well-built, commodious houses, some of them 
erected at considerable expense. The introduction of manu- 
factures has promoted the growth of a class of neat cottages, 
built by the thrift of workmen in the various shops. At Gil - 

Kevolutionary Kecords. 39 

moreville, at Squawbetty, and in the vicinity of the mills 
erected by Mr. Gr. W. King, the increase has been rapid. 


was a member of the tenth Congress, elected about 1808. He 
lived near the church, in an ample house still standing. He 
owned and improved the Forge now possessed by his grandson, 
Theodore Dean, and was a man of energy and enterprise, em- 
ploying many persons in farming, ship building and iron 

In 1806, he built a vessel of 150 tons, at Williams's landing 
on Taunton river, and floated it on empty hogsheads to deep 
water. He had a blast furnace near the center, for casting 
anvils, power hammers and heavy machinery, and his intelli- 
gence, enterprise and public spirit, commanded general respect 
and consideration. 


August 5, 1774. The town voted £1, 4s., 6d, to pay its 
proportion towards defraying the expenses of the Continental 

July 18, 1775. The town directed the purchase of ten 

November 20. Yoted £20 to Lieutenant Benjamin King 
for services as delegate to Provincial Congress. Zephania 
Leonard, Joseph Shaw and Seth Jones were chosen as commit- 
tee to manufacture saltpetre. 

March 4, 1776. Israel Washburn, Joshua Leonard, Benja- 
min King and Elijah Leonard were chosen a committee of 

Voted. That every person, from 16 and upwards, except those 
whom the committee shall see fit to exempt, contribute ten 
pounds each for a fund from which to pay soldiers. 

Ebenezer King and Captain John King were drawn jurors, 
for the trial of tories, at a special term of court at Taunton. 

40 History of Rayxham, Mass. 

July 29, 1778. Voted, to levy a tax upon tlie produce of the 
town to pay six Continental soldiers for nine months service. 

July 25, 1779. Voted, To raise one hundred and eleven 
pounds, to pay for soldiers' shirts, shoes and stockings. 

Josiah Dean was chosen delegate to convention at Concord. 

Xovemher 15. Voted. £107, 11-?., for the committee to 
expend in hiring soldiers for the public service, and procuring 

July 7. Made appropriation for six additional Continental 

In 1778, the town raised §35,416 (depreciated currency), for 
paying soldiers, and 821:,000 to purchase six thousand pounds 
of beef. 

September 27. Voted, to buy 11.523 pounds of beef, at 
£3. lis. per hundred in new emission currency, or in old 
currency, at equitable exchange. 

In 1781. a bounty of one hundred hard dollars, was offered, 
annually, to all the men who would enlist for three years. 

Voted. To assess the town £80, in hard money, to pay for 
beef, called for by the General Court. Also, one hundred and 
eighty-live hard dollars, to pay three soldiers, enlisted for five 
months, to serve in Rhode Island, and fifteen dollars a month, 
for the three men enlisted to serve in Xew York. 


It appears that the quotas of Raynham, paid for by the 
town, were principally from other places. 

The following named citizens of the town, served in person : 

Capt. Abraham Hathaway, Seth Dean, 

Elijah Grushee. Joseph Shaw, 

Graius King, Ceorge King, 

Job Hall, Solomon Leonard, 

Benjamin Cane, Stephen Williams, 

Chaplain, Perez Fobes. 

These are but a part of the men, from the town, who belonged 
to the Continental Army of the Revolution. 


Mr. Seth Dean volunteered as a soldier at the age of seven- 
teen, when the British force occupied Boston. Mr. Joseph 
Shaw and other young men of this town were enrolled with 
him in a company, of which John King was Captain, and 
Noah Hall, Lieutenant. Seth Dean was thus in the first 
campaign of the war, and went into the army then assembled 
around Boston, under command of Washington, whose head- 
quarters were in Cambridge. He then served during a term 
of eight months. 

He was on Boston Neck when Bunker Hill battle was 
fought, June 17, 1775, and saw the burning of Charlestown. 
During that battle, and on several successive days, cannon 
balls were flying over the Neck, where he was stationed. 

Returning home in January, he enjoyed repose but a few 
weeks, for in the inclement month of February, 1776, he 
returned again to the army and served two months at Cam- 
bridge, Winter Hill and Dorchester Heights. 

Mr. Dean was with the troops when the British evacuated 
Boston. The cannonading commenced in the town at twelve 
o'clock at night, and created much alarm among our people. 
At daylight, he saw the British go on board their ships, 
and leave the harbor. This was a day of rejoicing. Then 
Washington marched in his forces, and took possession of the 

Afterwards, Mr. Dean was in the army on Rhode Island, 
when the French fleet, under Count de Grrasse, had come to our 
assistance, and taken possession of the Island. 

Subsequently, he enlisted on board the privateer ship Haz- 
ard, of sixteen guns, and was on a cruise four months. The 
Hazard came into action with a British vessel of the same 
number of guns and men, on the 16th of March, when, after 
a severe and bloody struggle, the British vessel struck her 
colors. The British captain, in coming on board, said : " You 
have killed half of my men." The captain of the Hazard re- 
plied, " You should have struck sooner." 

In that sea-fight, Mr. Dean said he felt death near him, 
when, as he was loading a cannon, his companion Gaius King, 

42 History of Kaynham, Mass. 

brother of Asa King, was shot through, the head, and fell dead 
at his side. 

Finishing this voyage, in which he gained but little except 
a knowledge of the ravages of war, he returned to his home, 
in the south-easterly part of this town, and was married to a 
daughter of Joseph Shaw, in 1780. 

Mr. Seth Dean had two military commissions offered him, — 
that of ensign and lieutenant, — and afterwards was chosen cap- 
tain of militia, but in his modesty, declined them all. 

Though, in his early youth, his courage led him to face dan- 
ger in the field, no one was fonder of home or more calculated 
to make home pleasant. A man of a milder spirit, and at the 
same time, more resolute against disorder or indecorum, can- 
not easily be found. 


In 1742, one Fisher was public schoolmaster ; wages not 
recorded, but the town paid four shillings a week for his board. 

In 1744, the selectmen employed John Lea to teach seven 
weeks and four days, for <£16, 16s. 

In 1752, the town voted not to hire a teacher. 

In 1753, voted £16, 135., 4cZ., and board at four shilling a 
week, for teaching six months. 

The record proceeds in a similar manner up to 1777, when, 
§333.33 were appropriated for teaching. In 1846, it was $800. 

In 1837, the town's portion of the surplus revenue was 
loaned to Taunton Bank, and the income devoted to schools. 
Subsequently, the surplus revenue was used to pay the debts 
of the town. 

The appropriations gradually increased, up to 1869, when 
$1,800 were raised for schools. 


For the first seventy years, the records mention no expendi- 
ture for paupers. No shiftless or suspicious persons were 
allowed to dwell here ; and if any intruded they were warned 
to leave. 



In 1820, the support of the poor was contracted for by pub- 
lic bidding, and the lowest sum accepted. In 1823, the expense 
was $375, fixed bj bidding downwards, till the lowest offer 
was received. Of late years, the town has provided an alms- 
house. In 1868, the whole expense for maintaining paupers 
was $1,658. 


1731. John Staples, 

Ebenezer Robinson, 
Shadrach Wilbur. 

1733. Joseph Jones, 
John White, 
Jacob Hall. 

1744. Jonathan Shaw. 

1748. Josiah Edson. 

1751. Seth Leonard, 

Edmund Williams. 

1754. Israel Washburn, 
Joseph Dean. 

1756. Elijah Leonard. 

1760. Ebenezer Britton. 

1762. Benjamin King. 

1775. Joshua Leonard, 
Joseph Dean. 

1776. Jonathan Hall. 
1778. Gamaliel Leonard, 

Paul Leonard. 

1781. Stephen Dean, 
Josiah Dean. 

1782. Andrew Gilmore, 
Abiel Williams, 
Mason Shaw. 

1785. Ool. Jonathan Shaw, 
Amos Hall, 
Thomas Dean. 

1787. John Gilmore. 













George Williams. 
Reuben Hall. 
Abraham Hathaway. 
Seth Dean, 
William Byram. 
Godfrey Robinson. 
Nehemiah Jones, 
Thomas Leonard. 
Barzillai King, 
Edward Leonard. 
Seth Washburn. 
Lloyd Shaw. 
Capt. Samuel Wilbur. 
Amos Hall, 
Sylvester Robinson. 
Nathan Williams, 
Silas King. 
Sylvester Robinson. 
Warren Lincoln. 
Silas Shaw. 
Eli K. Washburn. 
Leonidas Dean, 
Enoch King, 
Ziba Wilbur, 
John Tracy, 
Job Robinson. 
Abisha Lincoln. 
Jahasiah King. 
Absalom Leonard. 

44 History of Raynham, Mass. 

1847. Amos R Hall. 1855. Thomas F. Cushman, 

1848. Charles Robinson, Abiathar Leonard. 
Henry H. Crane, 1856. Richard Gr. Eobinson. 
Benjamin F. Dean. 1858. John D. Gr. Williams, 

1850. Nathaniel B. Hall, Hemy H. Crane, 

Philo Leonard. Enoch Robinson. 

1853. Alpheus Pratt, 1865. Thomas B. Johnson. 

1854. Martin White. 1868. Thomas S. Cushman. 
Many members of the Board of Selectmen served a number 

of years. The date of election only is given. 


1731. Samuel Leonard. 1806. Horatio Leonard. 

1749. Josiah Dean. 1821. Abraham Hathaway. 

1764. Zephaniah Leonard. 1832. William Snow. 

1777. Mason Shaw. 1846. Soranus Hall. 

1781. Robert Britton. 1857. Samuel Jones. 

1785. Seth Washburn. 1865. Dennis Rockwell. 

1805. Josiah Dean. 1866. Samuel Jones. 
1868. Arunah A. Leach. 

From 1785 to 1805, a period of twenty years, Seth Wash- 
burn held the office continuously, and the average of the 
time of the first twelve town clerks was more than eleven 
years each. 


"By reason of the smallness of the town/' no representa- 
tive was chosen for the first thirty years of its existence. 
Then each town paid its own representative. In 1759, Zepha- 
niah Leonard was chosen, but declined to serve. The next 
year, the town was fined for not choosing a representative, and 
Josiah Dean was delegated to petition the General Court to 
remit the line. In 1768 and 1769, Zephania Leonard was 
chosen to represent the town, and received £7, 7s., 6d, for the 
two years service. This sum he gave to the public for the 
purpose of purchasing a lot for the proposed new meeting 

Population. 45 

Benjamin King was chosen in 1774, and also to act as dele- 
gate to the Provincial Congress, which met at Salem, in Octo- 
ber of that year. In 1775, he was again chosen, and in — 
1777. Zephaniah Leonard. 1825. Amos Hall. 
1780. Israel Washburn. 1828. Samuel Wilbur. 

1782. Noah Hall.- 1830. Godfrey Eobinson. 

1792. and the three following 1831. Ellis Hall. 

years, Josiah Dean. 1835. William Snow. 

To the Convention for ratifying 1837. Amos Hall. 

U. S. Constitution, 1838. Enos L. Williams. 

Israel Washburn. 1838. Absalom Leonard. 

1795. Seth Washburn. 1839. Amos Hall. 

1798. George Williams. 1841. Carmi Andrews. 

1799. Josiah Dean. 1842. William King. 
1801. Abraham Hathaway. 1843. Abisha Lincoln. 

1803. William A. Leonard. 1850. Cassander Gilmore. 

1804. Israel Washburn. 1852. Soranus Hall. 
1810. Josiah Dean. 1853. Barzillai King. 
1813. John Gilmore. 1857. Eev. Eobert Carver. 

1820. Delegates to Convention 1858. John D. G. Williams. 
for revis'g Constitution, 1859. Hiram A. Pratt. 
Eev. Silas Hall. 1860. Enoch Eobinson. 

1821. Samuel Wilbur. 1863. Henry H. Crane. 

1822. Godfrey Eobinson. 1865. Theodore Dean. 

1869. Enoch King. 


In^lgOO, Eaynham contained one thousand inhabitants. In 
1870, the mumber has doubled. Within the last ten years, 
manufactures have extended, and it is in this period that the 
most rapid increase has occurred. On the south side of the 
town, there is a considerable foreign population. At the north, 
there are seven or eight families of African descent. Their 
ancestor was Tobey Gilmore, a servant of John Gilmore, the 
5th. He served in the Revolutionary army, was servant to 
Gen. Washington, his particular duty being the care of the 
General's tents. He saved his bounty, bought land and 

46 History of Kay^ham, Mass. 

founded a family. He died April 19th, 1812 ; lies in the 
North Cerneteiy, under a blue head stone — and numerous 
descendants have preserved his name. One Boland, who 
became a Tory in the Ke volution, formerly occupied the land, 
confiscated and sold to Tobey. It subsequently appeared that 
Boland held only a life interest in the land, and the State 
re-paid his heirs $20,000, about the year 1845, to indemnify 
them for the sale. 

Cuff Leonard, a colored citizen of this town, who died in 
1825, was eight years in the Eevolutionary army, — a part of the 
time in the ranks, and a part of the time as servant of Gov- 
ernor Brooks. Cuff was brought up in the family of Capt. 
Joshua Leonard, from whom he derived his surname. Tradi- 
tion says, he captured six Hessians one night, when on picket 
guard, and brought them into camp. He was at the battle 
of Saratoga, and surrender of Burgoyne. He received a pen- 
sion, lived comfortably near the house of Mr. Macy Williams, 
and left a son Charles, famed for his amiability, intelligence 
and debonair manners. 

In 1869, the number of polls was 447 ; houses, 360 ; valu- 
ation, $1,390,045 ; whole population, about 2000. "While 
purely agricultural towns have diminished in inhabitants, this 
town, attributable to its manufactures, has increased. The aug- 
mentation however has not been among the farming section. 


There have arisen from this town a considerable number of 
intelligent women who have married educated men, attaining 
distinction elsewhere. Some of them are the following : — 

Prudence, daughter of Rev. John Wales, married Perez 
Eobes, LL. D. Polly, daughter of Dr. Fobes, married Rev. 
Elijah Leonard, Marshfield. Another daughter, Nancy, mar- 
ried Rev. Simeon Doggett, first Principal of Bristol Academy. 

Delia, daughter of Capt, Barzillai King, became the wife of 
Ruel Washburn, Esq., Maine. 

Polly, daughter of Seth Grushee, married Rev. Jonathan 
Keith, pastor, Rowe. 

Marriages. 47 

Ardelia, daughter of Silas King, married Eev. Silas Hall, 
pastor, Taunton and elsewhere. 

Hannah, daughter of Hon. Josiah Dean, in 1801, married 
Rev. Morrill Allen, Pembroke. 

Clarissa, daughter of Col. Zephania Leonard, became the 
wife of Eev. Henry Wight, D. D., of Bristol, R I., and her 
daughter married Gov. Byron Diman, of Rhode Island. 
-^"Stella, daughter of Hon. Seth Washburn, married Rev. 
Samuel Dean, of Scituate. 

Nancy, daughter of Rev. Stephen Hull, became consort of 
Rev. John Goldsbury, Principal of Bristol Academy. 

Fanny, daughter of Nehemiah Washburn, married Horatio 
Leonard, for thirty-five years high sheriff of Bristol County. 

Melancy, daughter of Capt. George Williams, married Eli- 
phalet Williams, merchant, of Boston. 

Sally, daughter of Macy Williams, became the wife of 
Capt. Abner Ellis, merchant, of Boston. 

Mary, daughter of Nehemiah Jones, Esq., married Rev. 
John Wilder, of Charlelton. 

Louisa, daughter of Nehemiah Jones, married Rev. Linus 
Shaw, of Sudbury. 

A third daughter of Mr. Jones, consorted with Alden Hath- 
away, M. D. 

Polly, daughter of Jonathan Williams, Senior, married Rev. 
Levi French, Petersham. 

^Deborah, daughter of Hon. Seth Washburn, married Rev. 
James Thompson, D. D., of Barre. 

-Amelia, daughter of Hon. Seth Washburn, married Josiah 
L. James, merchant, Illinois. 

Louisa, daughter of Major John Gilmore, married Francis 
Williams, manufacturer, Taunton. 

Harriett, daughter of Major E. B. Dean, married Rev. John 
Wheeler Sterling, LL. D., Professor and Vice-President, ~M.m-t/&/?7?i 
ncoota College. n£r. 

Charlotte, daughter of Dea. Oliver Washburn, married 
Rev. George Leonard, Marshfleld. 

48 Histoky of Ratnham, Mass. 

Hannah, daughter of John King, 3d, married Nathaniel 
Davis, merchant. Xew York. 

Elizabeth, daughter of Gen. Cromwell Washburn, married 
Capt. Charles T. Kobinson, manager of Old Colony Iron Works. 

Susie Jane, daughter of Alexander Bradford, married 
Eugene Monroe Conger. Whitewater. Wis. 

Julia, daughter of Rev. Stephen Hull, married Stockbridge 
Grushee. an eminent teacher. 

Abigail, daughter of Rev. Simeon Doggett. married "Wil- 
liam R. Dean, merchant and antiquarian, Boston. 


Eor many years after the organization of the town, few 
debts were incurred. Money was scant and strenuous efforts 
were made to avoid liabilities. In 1754, the town voted i; that 
their treasurer receive the bar-iron due to the town on their 
half-share on the old Iron "Works, and that he dispose of a part 
of it to buy a funeral pall for the use of the town, and keep 
the remainder till further ordered." 

" It was put to vote to determine if the town would add 
£300 old tenor, to Rev. Mr. Wales's salary, in order to raise it 
to £400, one-third to be paid in bar-iron at £9 per cwt. the 
other two-thirds in provisions, — Indian corn at 20 shillings 
per bushel, rye, 30 shillings, beef, 18 pence per pound, which 
sum reduced to sterling money is £53, 6s., 8d," and was voted 
in the affirmative. 

The debt at present existing was incurred on account of 
the rebellion. In 1867, it had been reduced to about §8,000. 

In 1868, the taxes were 82 upon a poll, and 89.25 on every 
thousand dollars of real and personal property. A quarter of 
a century ago, three or four dollars on a thousand was thought 


Unlike Dighton and Philadelphia, the forefathers of the 
hamlet did not lay out our streets in right angles like a chess- 
board ; but followed the convenience of the surface, the paths 
of the cows, or the trails of the Aborigines in making roads. 

The Town System. 49 

A loamy soil, and the insufficient supply of gravel, pre- 
vents the many roads of the town from being at all times of 
the year models for imitation. The heavy transportation over 
the main avenue of this town, leading from Taunton to 
Bridgewater, makes the task of keeping it in repair a diffi- 
cult one. Our fathers laid out no space for a common. Land 
was in such abundance, that it seemed incredible the time 
should ever come when there should be less of it than the 
public convenience required. Space was to them the incon- 
venient separation from neighboring settlements, a weary dis- 
tance to be overcome, and they looked upon trees and Indians 
as their natural enemies. When the meadow lands were all 
occupied, the early settlers hacked upon the forests till they 
had cleared new fields. 

The trunks and limbs were rubbish, and the stumps ob- 
stacles to be painfully removed. Such pioneers had little 
thought for shade trees, and the planting of forests is a modern 


The early history of the country demonstrates how important 
the town organizations were to the prosperity of the State. 
There was but little centralization. The General Court made 
direct requisitions upon the town for provisions, clothing and 
guns in time of war, and at all times towns have had the 
detailed direction of their own municipal affairs. 

In De Tocqueville's famous work upon America, he says, 
"that the safety and permanency of the Kepublic rests on the 
town organizations." 

They are the cradle and nurseries of liberty, the school of 
political economy, as the family is the nursery of religious 

Cities are artificial productions, and fall into a class by them- 
selves. It has always been the residents of fields and moun- 
tains, who have had the strongest love of country, and who 
have contributed most to the common defense. 


50 History of Raynham, Mass. 


Within fifty years, intelligent farming has wrought great 
improvement in the cultivation of the earth. Plows run 
deeper, fertilizers are diffused in the soil instead of being placed 
wholly in the hill of corn, and grass fields are invigorated 
with dressing. 

The farm of Mr. Grams Dean is an example of improve- 
ment. By ditching, under-draining, deep-plowing, and the 
judicious use of fertilizers, its product of hay has been increased 
from five, to tweDty-five tons annually, and other crops pro- 
portionately. A few years of care has enhanced the value 
of the farm to four times its original cost. 

The river farm of Mr. Barzillai King is another instance of 
agricultural improvement, evinced by full barns and choice 

The natural habitations of men are in the country. Indi- 
viduals, who have made fortunes in the cities, uniformly look 
forward to the rest and repose of a rural life. Towns, like 
Raynham, within easy reach of all the great centers, are pecu- 
liarly the places where the best which both city and country 
afford may readily be found and enjoyed, with least incon- 
venience ; and where long life and its peaceful flow are most 
certainly ensured. 

There is an inherent longing for broad acres, verdant fields, 
unobstructed skies and waving forests, — the balmy air " where 
health is ever-blooming with calm contemplation and poetic 
ease. : 


" Out of the dust of the town of the king, 
Into the lust of the green of the Spring; 
Forth from the noises of streets and walls, 
Unto the voices of waterfalls." 

In the chronicles of Athens, Thucydides describes the love 
of men for their native fields in an affecting manner. When 
the Spartans invaded the country, the people fled into Athens 

Husbandry. 51 

for protection. But tliej perished there in great numbers, the 
historian says, not by disease, but from a homesick passion for 
their rural dwellings, — for the love of — 

" Hill and valley grove and field, 
And all the rugged mountains yield," 




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